The spread of broadband Internet has resulted in the increase of spyware and adware. This study highlights their damaging eﬀects and proposes a model that captures defensive measures adopted by Internet users. Speciﬁcally, our model indicates that knowledge has a positive impact on self-eﬃcacy that, in turn, is presumed to trigger technical defensive measures. Moreover, concerns for privacy and previous experience with spyware and adware are likely to evoke both tactical and technical defense measures. Data collected by the PEW Internet and American Life research project are utilized to test the proposed model and the ﬁndings are discussed.
Research on the effectiveness of cyber security awareness in ICS Risk Assessment Frameworks
Assessing security awareness among users is essential for protecting industrial control systems (ICSs) from social...