Human detection of attacks against cyber-physical systems

The main contributions from this work include: (1) A systematic study of how humans protect against, detect and respond to cyber attacks; (2) A detailed explanation of the devices that people use and their level of awareness of the sensors and components that these devices incorporate and how these could be targeted; (3) Information on how people detect attacks against physical devices versus more traditional attacks; (4) Information on the types of attacks that can be observed both directly from the behaviour of the physical components of an industrial control system and from the data outputs of the system; (5) Findings that show that, whilst attacks are often observed as anomalies, these errors are frequently attributed to technical error or failure; (6) Finally, this thesis explores whether findings relating to susceptibility and the ability to detect different attacks against physical systems can be generalised across different forms of attacks and systems.