Representing a human-centric cyberspace

There is a lack of consensus when using the term “cyberspace” []. Computers and network devices are prominent in definitions of cyberspace; less common is the essential and inclusion of human users. However, the human user is both implicitly integral to and actively part of the cyberspace. A new human-centric model of cyberspace is proposed (the HCCM), with the user as a physical and integral entity, together with recognition of the cognitive representation of cyberspace. It focuses on boundaries and transformation points between objects and spaces and offers a platform for future human-centric research in cybersecurity.